Conversion of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicles to Electric Vehicles (EVs): Focus on Motorcycles
4 October 2023

Side Event 1 (Morning Session)– Conversion of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicles to Electric Vehicles (EVs): Focus on Motorcycles

Several Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries have strategies for low‑emissions mobility with the decrease of their oil import dependency being one of the key goals. The ACE’s 7th ASEAN Energy Outlook (AEO7) identified that electric vehicle deployment targets allow the shift from the use of conventional fuel to electricity. The strategies emphasise, amongst others, removing obstacles to the electrification of transport to promote market development of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV), especially cars, powered two-wheelers, i.e., motorcycles, and light-duty vehicles or vans.

Nevertheless, without subsidy, reaching an important share of EV in the total road vehicle sale would take a very long period. Suehiro and Purwanto (2019) estimated that during the period 2016-2040, a total of US$ 65 billion cumulative subsidy dedicated to reducing purchase price in four ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam) should increase plug-in electric vehicle sale’s share to 50 percent by 2040. Without this high amount of subsidy, the 2040 sale share would reach only 12 percent.

One of the ideas that shall increase EV share in the total road vehicle fleet consists in converting internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles into electric vehicles. In the case of Indonesia, this conversion might find focus on the powered-2-wheelers (P2Ws) or motorcycles.

To shortcut the need to finance the enormous amount of subsidy, the option of conversion or retrofitting of the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles into EVs is appealing to accelerate EV penetration at a lower cost. Secco et al., (2017) and Aloui et al., (2021) considered mass retrofitting as an improvement lever in the transition to sustainable urban mobility. Hoeft (2021) identified key success factors for retrofitting business models in the four marketing mix factors, i.e., product, price, communication, and distribution. Regarding the product, consumers expect, among others, to have a retrofit guarantee of safety and durability, have a simple and neat looking design of the retrofit, and appreciate further vehicle upgrades in terms of features or gadgets in addition to the drivetrain retrofitting.

Powered-2-wheelers (P2Ws) or motorcycles themselves are the most affordable private road transport modes in several ASEAN countries and the most popular modes in certain ASEAN countries. Quoting Vietnam Register, Le et al., 2022 state that there were 65.2 million motorcycle and mopeds in Vietnam in 2020, while ADB (2022) estimate that currently there are around 120 million of motorcycles operating in Indonesia.

This international workshop shall support Priority Number 4.4. on the Conversion of ICEs (internal combustion engine vehicles) to EVs (electric vehicles) focusing on motorcycles The strategy of this conference consists of first, analysing the feasibility of ICE motorcycles converting to electric motorcycles option to accelerate mobility electrification in ASEAN Member States based on the total cost of ownership of a converted electric motorcycles in comparison to a new electric motorcycles, second, to see possible impacts of this conversion strategy to the power system, and third, the business model that shall facilitate ICE converting to EV.

Event Details

Date: Wednesday, 4 October 2023
Time: 9 AM - 12.30 PM (Jakarta Time | GMT+7)
Venue: Gedung Forum Teknologi Lemigas, Jakarta


09:00 - 09:05

Welcoming and Program Introduction

09:05 - 09:20

Opening Remarks

  • Mr Koji Hachiyama, Chief Operating Officer (COO) ERIA
09:20 – 09:30

Keynote Speech

  • HE Arifin Tasrif, Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources, Indonesia ((pre-recorded video)
09:30 - 09:50

Visit to the MEMR’s expo booth to see show cases of:

  • ICE motorcycle conversion to electric motorcycle
  • B35 and other biofuels
09:50 – 10:20

Scene Setting Presentations: On the Sustainable EV Use in Southeast Asian Countries


  • Ir Senda Hurmuzan Kanam M.Sc., the Head of Electricity Testing and Survey Main Center of the Directorate General of New, Renewable Energy and Conservation of the MEMR
  • Mr Rizky Aditya Putra, Senior Officer, ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE)
  • Dr Alloysius Joko Purwanto, Energy Economist, ERIA
10:20 – 10:30


10:30 - 11:20

Panel Discussion 1: The Economy of (Converted) Electric Motorcycles and the Impacts on Energy System, Emissions, and Air Pollution

Moderated by Ms Dynta Trishana Munardy, Officer, ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE)


  • Mr Dinh-Son Tran, Researcher (Consultant) of International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) 
  • Ms Iffah Hannah binti Muluk, Deputy Director of Electrical/Gas Safety Development, Energy Commission of Malaysia (TBC)
  • Ms Duwi Pratiwi, Coordinator Component 2 ENTREV Project UNDP-MEMR
  • Prof Sutanto Soehodho, Jakarta City Transportation Council (DTKJ)
11:20 - 12:20

Panel Discussion 2: Towards Suitable Business Model for (converted) Electric Motorcycles in Southeast Asian Countries

Moderated by Tran Dong Phuong, Senior Policy Advisor, ERIA 


  • Expert from Alva (TBC)
  • Mr Jai Un Chun, General Manager, Hyundai Kefico ASEAN Regional Control Office
  • Asst. Prof Dr Uthane Supatti, Vice President for Academic and Human Development, Electric Vehicle Association of Thailand (EVAT)
  • Mr Dao Xuan Lai, Assistant Resident Representative, Head of Climate Change and Environment Unit, UNDP Viet Nam (TBC)
12:20 - 12:30

Conclusion Remarks

  • Dr Gigih Udi Atmo, Director of Energy Conservation, MEMR Indonesia (TBC)